Cuba’s cardiovascular risk situations: Worldwide comparison of account and training gradients

  • Maria Dieci,
  • Juan J. Llibre-Rodriguez,
  • Daisy Acosta,
  • William H. Dow
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    Cuba’s life expectancy at the 79 try 3rd large inside the Latin The united states. Of numerous trait which in order to social assets inside the health insurance and education, but relative research is sparse, hence we examine Cuba having nearby Dominican Republic, Costa Rica due to the solid personal protections, and You.S. Provided large aerobic mortality, i manage cardiovascular chance foundation membership. To evaluate the latest character out of medical care, i differentiate medically amenable biomarkers off behavioral chance things. To evaluate this new character out of Cuba’s work with guarantee, i examine knowledge gradients when you look at the risk things.


    We familiarize yourself with Cuban studies regarding Dementia Research Group baseline survey from urban grownups age 65 plusparison products is pulled regarding Dominican Republic survey, the brand new Costa Rican CRELES, and you can U.S. NHANES. We become familiar with Sports dating review mix-country accounts and you may training gradients away from medically amenable (blood circulation pressure, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, entry to medical care) and you can behavioural (smoking, obesity) exposure factors,–using intercourse-stratified weighted function evaluations and you may ages-modified logistic regression.


    Neither clinically amenable neither behavioral risk activities is uniformly finest when you look at the Cuba than simply comparison nations. Obesity is leaner inside Cuba, however, men puffing is higher. Hypertension, all forms of diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia account is actually packed with all of the places, in the event Cuba’s is actually less than Costa Rica. Blood pressure levels awareness within the Cuba is much like Costa Rica. Cuba have a top ratio of hypertensives into therapy than just Costa Rica, although less than the latest You.Sparative gradients by the training was likewise blended. Getting behavioural affairs, Cuba reveals the strongest gradients (priong the brand new nations compared: puffing advances, however, obesity gets worse that have training. Blood pressure level feel along with advances with studies inside Cuba, however, Cuba suggests zero significant variations by degree inside the blood circulation pressure procedures.


    Puffing try relatively filled up with Cuba, however, obesity is actually lowest, as well as the ensuing biomarkers show relatively combined habits. Cuba’s social protections have not eliminated solid instructional gradients in behavioural chance points, nevertheless health care program seemingly have eliminated disparities eg during the blood circulation pressure procedures.

    Citation: Dieci Meters, Llibre-Rodriguez JJ, Acosta D, Dow WH (2021) Cuba’s aerobic chance facts: Worldwide evaluation out-of membership and you can knowledge gradients. PLoS One to sixteen(3): e0247831.

    Copyright: © 2021 Dieci et al. This really is an open availability article delivered within the regards to the Innovative Commons Attribution Licenses, hence permits unrestricted play with, distribution, and you may reproduction in almost any typical, considering the original journalist and origin are paid.

    Investigation Access: Research of Cuba and also the Dominican Republic are from work of the 1066 Alzhiemer’s disease Lookup Classification. That it social studies will likely be utilized here: Data regarding Costa Rica come from the brand new CRELES research, and is accessed here: Investigation about All of us come from NHANES, as they are offered right here: that’s where:


    Cuba is actually a center-money country having fitness indications you to definitely echo those of high-money nations, and you may a fast ageing populace out-of 11.3 billion. Persistent, non-communicable diseases may be the best factor in death in the country, with Cuba’s ageing inhabitants revealing a high prevalence of chance issues to own heart disease . This might be specifically distinguished because of Cuba’s total federal health care system that’s 100 % free and you may authorities-applied, offering extensive publicity from top, additional, and you can tertiary care and attention to people.

    This research compares cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk foundation patterns one of grownups over 65 when you look at the Cuba having people regarding a collection of regional assessment regions: Costa Rica, the brand new Dominican Republic, additionally the You.S. This research provides a picture out of health effects within a significant ages, based on the heritage of one’s historical energy of your 1950s and you may 1960s in the Cuba. New analysis nations is actually heterogeneous inside their health and personal solutions, anywhere between Costa Rica’s typically strong societal markets and you can low inequality (commonly debated are like Cuba) on the drastically faster equitable expertise on different countries. I make into the earlier performs such as for example a six-nation investigation making use of the Who has got Learn from Globally Aging and you can Mature Wellness Wave step one study , a survey evaluating training gradients in CVD exposure facts inside the Costa Rica versus brand new You.S. , and other newer internationally reviews [4–6]. We together with generate towards the present relative analyses along side investigation places documenting extreme socioeconomic standing (SES) gradients within the mortality in the Cuba that will be surprisingly just like those of one’s Dominican Republic .